Hot politics Lab: Topics


core findings

a. Personality, and particularly the trait agreeableness, predicts voting for populist parties or politicians. (Bakker et al 2016)

Featured in: Stuk Rood Vlees | Washington Post

b. There are two routes to Trump support: one via agreeableness, the other via authoritarianism.

Featured in: Stuk Rood Vlees

c. Personality, particularly extraversion and openness, predict vote switching. (Bakker, Klemmensen, Norgaard, Schumacher 2016)

Featured in: Stuk Rood Vlees

work in progress

*A causal analysis of the relationship between agreeableness and populist voting using panel data, a conjoint experiment and a psychophysiological study. This work has been presented at the ICA conference in San Diego (2017) and the ISSP conference in Edinburgh (2017). 

For additional information: View slides here.


PDF  Pdf version    Appendix  Appendix    Blog  Blog    Replication Materials  Replication Materials

Citation Additional Material
Gijs Schumacher & Ingo Zettler (2019). House of Cards or West Wing? Self-reported HEXACO Traits of Danish Politicians. Personality and Individual Differences , 141, 173–181.
Rooduijn, Matthijs & Brian Burgoon (2018) The Paradox of Wellbeing: Do Unfavorable Socioeconomic and Sociocultural Contexts Deepen or Dampen Radical Left and Right Voting Among the Less Well-Off? Comparative Political Studies 51(13): 1720-1753.
Bert Bakker & Yphtach Lelkes (2018). Selling Ourselves Short? How Abbreviated Measures of Personality Change the Way We Think about Personality and Politics. Journal of Politics, 80, 4. PDF
Citation Additional Material
Rooduijn, Matthijs, Brian Burgoon, Erika van Elsas & Herman van de Werfhorst (2017) Radical Distinction: Support for Radical Left and Radical Right Parties in Europe. European Union Politics 18(4): 536-559.
Bakker, B.N., & De Vreese, C.H. (2016). Personality and European Union attitudes: Relationships across European Union attitude dimensions. European Union Politics 17(1): 25-45. Blog
Bert Bakker, Matthijs Rooduijn, & Gijs Schumacher (2016). The Psychological Roots of Populist Voting: Evidence from the United States, the Netherlands and Germany. European Journal of Political Research, 55, 2. PDF Appendix Replication Materials Blog
Bakker, B.N. (2016). Personality traits, income and economic ideology. Political Psychology. Blog
Bert Bakker, Robert Klemmensen, Asbjørn Nørgaard & Gijs Schumacher (2016). Stay Loyal or Exit the Party? How Openness to Experience and Extraversion Explain Vote Switching. Political Psychology, 37, 3. PDF Appendix Replication Materials Blog
Gijs Schumacher & Matthijs Rooduijn (2013). Sympathy for the 'Devil'? Voting for Populists in the 2006 and 2010 Dutch General Elections. Electoral Studies, 32, 1. PDF Appendix Replication Materials
Bakker, B.N., Hopmann, D.N., & Persson, M. (2015). Personality traits and party identification over time. European Journal of Political Research 54(2), 197-215.

chapters, data & other




Bert Bakker, Matthijs Rooduijn, & Gijs Schumacher (2017). Response to Schimpf and Schoen’s Response to Bakker, Rooduijn and Schumacher (2016). Open Science Framework. November 24.



Bert Bakker, Matthijs Rooduijn, and Gijs Schumacher (2016). “The Populist Personality.” In The Science of Trump. Explaining the Rise of an Unlikely Candidate, eds. John Sides and Henry Farrell. The Monkey Cage.